OV Protection

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  • Varistor - 限压保护
  • TVS in parallel - prevent surge voltage

稳压管 / Zener

  • MMSZ5231BT1G 5.1V
  • Fuse + zener

OV Circuit 1

OV Circuit 2 Reference

Explain

  • Use 12V zener, choose a mosfet with low gate threshold preferably Vth < 3V, Vgs < 12V and capable of high instanteneous current.
  • If a voltage Vin gets above 12V, Vin - Vz will appear at the gate of the mosfet. When this voltage goes above the threshold voltage, mosfet turns on and shorts the input to the ground via fuse, the fuse blows.
  • On a second thought, a small resistor could be put on the drain of the mosfet to protect it from overcurrent. Resistor value should be hight enough so that 24V/R < Imax for mosfet, but low enough for the fuse to blow 24V/R > Ifuse.
  • You can use PTC instead of fuse, but these tend to be slower, so you would probably need a beefier mosfet.


Reference

  • google - protect circuit